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(c) further harmonisation of the method of allocation (including auctioning for the time after 2012) and of the criteria for national allocation plans referred to in Annex III;

(d) the use of credits from project mechanisms;

(e) the relationship of emissions trading with other policies and measures imple­mented at Member State and Community level, including taxation, that pursue the same objectives;

(f) whether it is appropriate for there to be a single Community registry;

(g) the level of excess emissions penalties, taking into account, inter alia, inflation;

(h) the functioning of the allowance market, covering in particular any possible

market disturbances;

(i) how to adapt the Community scheme to an enlarged European Union;

(j) pooling;

(k) the practicality of developing Community-wide benchmarks as a basis for

allocation, taking into account the best available techniques and cost-benefit


The Commission shall submit this report to the European Parliament and the

Council by 30 June 2006, accompanied by proposals as appropriate.

3. Linking the project-based mechanisms, including Joint Implementation (JI)

and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), with the Community scheme is

desirable and important to achieve the goals of both reducing global greenhouse

gas emissions and increasing the cost-effective functioning of the Community

scheme. Therefore, the emission credits from the project-based mechanisms

will be recognised for their use in this scheme subject to provisions adopted by

the European Parliament and the Council on a proposal from the Commission,

which should apply in parallel with the Community scheme in 2005. The use of

the mechanisms shall be supplemental to domestic action, in accordance with

the relevant provisions of the Kyoto Protocol and Marrakesh Accords.

Article 31 Implementation

1. Member States shall bring into force the laws, regulations and administrative provisions necessary to comply with this Directive by 31 December 2003 at the latest. They shall forthwith inform the Commission thereof. The Commission shall notify the other Member States of these laws, regulations and administrative provisions.

When Member States adopt these measures, they shall contain a reference to this Directive or be accompanied by such a reference on the occasion of their official publication. The methods of making such reference shall be laid down by Member States.

2. Member States shall communicate to the Commission the text of the provisions of national law which they adopt in the field covered by this Directive. The Commission shall inform the other Member States thereof.

Article 32

Entry into force

This Directive shall enter into force on the day of its publication in the Official

Journal of the European Union.



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Article 33 Addressees

This Directive is addressed to the Member States.

Done at Luxembourg, 13 October 2003.

For the European Parliament                     For the Council

The President                                            The President

P. Cox                                                        G. Alemanno



1. Installations or parts of installations used for research, development and testing of new products and processes are not covered by this Directive.

2. The threshold values given below generally refer to production capacities or outputs. Where one operator carries out several activities falling under the same subheading in the same installation or on the same site, the capacities of such activities are added together.

ActivitiesGreenhouse gases

Energy activities

Combustion installations with a rated thermal input exceeding 20 MW (except

hazardous or municipal waste installations)

Mineral oil refineries

Coke ovensCarbon dioxide Carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide

Production and processing of ferrous metals Metal ore (including sulphide ore) roasting or sintering installations Installations for the production of pig iron or steel (primary or secondary fusion) including continuous casting, with a capacity exceeding 2,5 tonnes per hourCarbon dioxide Carbon dioxide

Mineral industry

Installations for the production of cement clinker in rotary kilns with a production capacity exceeding 500 tonnes per day or lime in rotary kilns with a production capacity exceeding 50 tonnes per day or in other furnaces with a production capacity exceeding 50 tonnes per day

Installations for the manufacture of glass including glass fibre with a melting capa city exceeding 20 tonnes per day

Installations for the manufacture of ceramic products by firing, in particular roofing tiles, bricks, refractory bricks, tiles, stoneware or porcelain, with a produc tion capacity exceeding 75 tonnes per day, and/or with a kiln capacity exceeding 4 m3 and with a setting density per kiln exceeding 300 kg/m3Carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide

Other activities Industrial plants for the production of

(a) pulp from timber or other fibrous materials

(b) paper and board with a production capacity exceeding 20 tonnes per dayCarbon dioxide Carbon dioxide



Carbon dioxide (CO2) Methane (CH4) Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) Sulphur Hexafluoride (SF6)



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1. The total quantity of allowances to be allocated for the relevant period shall be consistent with the Member State’s obligation to limit its emissions pursuant to Decision 2002/358/EC and the Kyoto Protocol, taking into account, on the one hand, the proportion of overall emissions that these allowances represent in comparison with emissions from sources not covered by this Directive and, on the other hand, national energy policies, and should be consistent with the national climate change programme. The total quantity of allowances to be allocated shall not be more than is likely to be needed for the strict application of the criteria of this Annex. Prior to 2008, the quantity shall be consistent with a path towards achieving or over-achieving each Member State’s target under Decision 2002/358/EC and the Kyoto Protocol.

2. The total quantity of allowances to be allocated shall be consistent with as­sessments of actual and projected progress towards fulfilling the Member States’ contributions to the Community’s commitments made pursuant to Decision 93/389/EEC.

3. Quantities of allowances to be allocated shall be consistent with the potential, including the technological potential, of activities covered by this scheme to reduce emissions. Member States may base their distribution of allowances on average emissions of greenhouse gases by product in each activity and achievable progress in each activity.

4. The plan shall be consistent with other Community legislative and policy instru­ments. Account should be taken of unavoidable increases in emissions resulting from new legislative requirements.

5. The plan shall not discriminate between companies or sectors in such a way as to unduly favour certain undertakings or activities in accordance with the requirements of the Treaty, in particular Articles 87 and 88 thereof.

6. The plan shall contain information on the manner in which new entrants will be able to begin participating in the Community scheme in the Member State concerned.

7. The plan may accommodate early action and shall contain information on the manner in which early action is taken into account. Benchmarks derived from reference documents concerning the best available technologies may be employed by Member States in developing their National Allocation Plans, and these benchmarks can incorporate an element of accommodating early action.

8. The plan shall contain information on the manner in which clean technology, including energy efficient technologies, are taken into account.

9. The plan shall include provisions for comments to be expressed by the public, and contain information on the arrangements by which due account will be taken of these comments before a decision on the allocation of allowances is taken.

10. The plan shall contain a list of the installations covered by this Directive with the quantities of allowances intended to be allocated to each.

11. The plan may contain information on the manner in which the existence of competition from countries or entities outside the Union will be taken into account.



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Monitoring of carbon dioxide emissions

Emissions shall be monitored either by calculation or on the basis of measurement.


Calculations of emissions shall be performed using the formula:

Activity data × Emission factor × Oxidation factor

Activity data (fuel used, production rate etc.) shall be monitored on the basis of supply data or measurement.

Accepted emission factors shall be used. Activity-specific emission factors are acceptable for all fuels. Default factors are acceptable for all fuels except noncommercial ones (waste fuels such as tyres and industrial process gases). Seam-specific defaults for coal, and EU-specific or producer country-specific defaults for natural gas shall be further elaborated. IPCC default values are acceptable for refinery products. The emission factor for biomass shall be zero.

If the emission factor does not take account of the fact that some of the carbon is not oxidised, then an additional oxidation factor shall be used. If activity-specific emission factors have been calculated and already take oxidation into account, then an oxidation factor need not be applied.

Default oxidation factors developed pursuant to Directive 96/61/EC shall be used, unless the operator can demonstrate that activity-specific factors are more accurate.

A separate calculation shall be made for each activity, installation and for each fuel.


Measurement of emissions shall use standardised or accepted methods, and shall be corroborated by a supporting calculation of emissions.

Monitoring of emissions of other greenhouse gases

Standardised or accepted methods shall be used, developed by the Commission in collaboration with all relevant stakeholders and adopted in accordance with the procedure referred to in Article 23(2).

Reporting of emissions

Each operator shall include the following information in the report for an installation:

A. Data identifying the installation, including:

– Name of the installation;

– Its address, including postcode and country;

– Type and number of Annex I activities carried out in the installation;

– Address, telephone, fax and email details for a contact person; and

– Name of the owner of the installation, and of any parent company.



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B. For each Annex I activity carried out on the site for which emissions are calculated:

–  Activity data;

–  Emission factors;

–  Oxidation factors;

–  Total emissions; and

–  Uncertainty.

C. For each Annex I activity carried out on the site for which emissions are measured:

– Total emissions;

– Information on the reliability of measurement methods; and

– Uncertainty.

D. For emissions from combustion, the report shall also include the oxidation factor, unless oxidation has already been taken into account in the development of an activity-specific emission factor.

Member States shall take measures to coordinate reporting requirements with any existing reporting requirements in order to minimise the reporting burden on businesses.



General Principles

1.  Emissions from each activity listed in Annex I shall be subject to verifica­tion.

2. The verification process shall include consideration of the report pursuant to Article 14(3) and of monitoring during the preceding year. It shall address the reliability, credibility and accuracy of monitoring systems and the reported data and information relating to emissions, in particular:

(a) the reported activity data and related measurements and calculations;

(b) the choice and the employment of emission factors;

(c) the calculations leading to the determination of the overall emissions; and

(d) if measurement is used, the appropriateness of the choice and the employment of measuring methods.

3. Reported emissions may only be validated if reliable and credible data and information allow the emissions to be determined with a high degree of certainty. A high degree of certainty requires the operator to show that:

(a) the reported data is free of inconsistencies;

(b) the collection of the data has been carried out in accordance with the ap­plicable scientific standards; and

(c) the relevant records of the installation are complete and consistent.

4. The verifier shall be given access to all sites and information in relation to the subject of the verification.



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5. The verifier shall take into account whether the installation is registered under the Community eco-management and audit scheme (EMAS).


Strategic analysis

6. The verification shall be based on a strategic analysis of all the activities carried out in the installation. This requires the verifier to have an overview of all the activities and their significance for emissions.

Process analysis

7. The verification of the information submitted shall, where appropriate, be carried out on the site of the installation. The verifier shall use spot-checks to determine the reliability of the reported data and information.

Risk analysis

8. The verifier shall submit all the sources of emissions in the installation to an evaluation with regard to the reliability of the data of each source contributing to the overall emissions of the installation.

9. On the basis of this analysis the verifier shall explicitly identify those sources with a high risk of error and other aspects of the monitoring and reporting procedure which are likely to contribute to errors in the determination of the overall emissions. This especially involves the choice of the emission factors and the calculations necessary to determine the level of the emissions from individual sources. Particular attention shall be given to those sources with a high risk of error and the abovementioned aspects of the monitoring procedure.

10. The verifier shall take into consideration any effective risk control methods applied by the operator with a view to minimising the degree of uncertainty.


11. The verifier shall prepare a report on the validation process stating whether the report pursuant to Article 14(3) is satisfactory. This report shall specify all issues relevant to the work carried out. A statement that the report pursuant to Article 14(3) is satisfactory may be made if, in the opinion of the verifier, the total emissions are not materially misstated.

Minimum competency requirements for the verifier

12. The verifier shall be independent of the operator, carry out his activities in a sound and objective professional manner, and understand:

(a) the provisions of this Directive, as well as relevant standards and guidance adopted by the Commission pursuant to Article 14(1);

(b) the legislative, regulatory, and administrative requirements relevant to the activities being verified; and

(c) the generation of all information related to each source of emissions in the installation, in particular, relating to the collection, measurement, calculation and reporting of data.