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Європейське право навколишнього середовища

250Розділ 9

The passive approach to law compliance is very common, as well as high level of tolerance for non-compliance.

3.2 Environmental enforcement problems from the EU accession point of view

It is very difficult and even impossible to separate the problems of the environ­mental enforcement problems linked with the EU accession from the general ones described above. Lack of institutional and human resources capacities, insufficient financing, complex and not always effective and transparent procedures of enforcement and missing legislative frameworks for promotion of environmental compliance are making problems also from the EU accession point of view. Nevertheless, the needs to solve the same problems with the perspective to meet strong EC requirements as the necessary condition for being accepted as an EU member state in the relatively near future, provides both a great challenge and stimulation to correct the problem.

Even during the pre-accession phase, the EC is paying an enormous attention not only to the process of harmonizing the ilanguagei of appropriate legislation, but also (and even more) to providing sound evidence that the harmonized legislation will be enforced effectively. From the detailed view of the EC, the current problems in environmental enforcement are more visible. Specifically, adopting and implementing some complex and/or horizontal directives (like the IPPC Directive, the new Water Framework Directive which

in under preparation now) requires intensive work in adjusting enforcement mechanisms in a short time. Our first experience with this kind of exercise have already been gained from implementing the completely new pieces of legislation (i.e. the Act No. 157/1998, on Chemicals and Chemical Substances, the Act. No. 123/1998, on Public Access to Environmental Information) which are fully compatible with the EU environmental acquis.


Improvement of environmental enforcement in the Czech Republic in general and ensuring the effective enforcement of the EU environmental legislation cannot be considered separately as they are itwo sides of one problem.i The EU member states are obliged to enforce the EC environmental legislation in the same way and using the same instruments and methods which they apply in enforcing their own national environmental requirements. Therefore measures taken to strengthen the environmental enforcement in the Czech

Republic should be designed to meet the needs for enforcement of the Czech laws, strong enough to enforce the EU legislation incorporated into the national legislative system.

The measures which inevitably follow the above mentioned gaps and incon­sistencies of the Czech enforcement system, could be distinguished into three categories:

– improvement of legislative procedures and environmental legislation;

– establishment of more effective institutional frameworks and procedures for the enforcement;

– changes of competencies of the competent authorities.



Правові аспекти співпраці України і ЄС у сфері охорони довкілля                       251

4.1 Legislative measures

The expected improvement must be achieved not only by preparing new acts or by updating the current laws to be compatible with the EU environmental acquis, but also by strengthening all legislative procedures. This is necessary:

– to make the legislative procedures less political and more professional, con­centrated on substantial problems;

– to open procedures of making comments on bills for the general public, for academic/university and independent experts;

– even in early stage of drafting new pieces of environmental legislation, to take into account more extensively practical experience and knowledge of environmental inspectors, academic/university and independent experts;

– to specify environmental requirements which are enforceable, concrete and exact — the environmental obligations must be permanently and consistently linked with proposed sanctions (penalties etc.);

– to specify monitoring obligations in sectoral legislation;

– during drafting a new environmental law, to assess all the requirements for effective enforcement (institutional capacities, procedures, technical and information support including equipment, human capacities and financial needs) and ensure that they are in place before the law is in power;

– to review, propose and adopt clear and effective administrative rules and institutional framework for permitting procedures;

– more efficiently and a greater extent to involve the general public into the environmental decision-making;

– to introduce legal standing for representatives of the general public in envi­ronmental matters.

4.2 Institution building and strengthening of capacities

Possibilities to improve environmental compliance and enforcement depend very much on the current, real state of enforcement institutions, on their capacities and competences and, consequently, on their effectiveness. Quantitative growth of enforcement bodies does not solve the problem, structural and qualitative changes are evidently much more efficient. The process must be started by detailed and quite comprehensive assessment of present enforcement capacity, by identification of needs and gaps. This

process has been already launched in the Czech Republic, supported by EC and several EU member countries. Based on the first results of this assessment and the new legislation proposed, the capacity and effectiveness of enforcement institu­tions can be enhanced (in a present stage of our knowledge) by:

– changing the current state administrative system and the position of state employees working in enforcement institutions to strengthen their respect;

– establishing and introducing enforcement as a comprehensive approach used regularly as the systematic tool wherever and whenever the environmental re­quirements are to be met (programs of enforcement — system of targeting, priority setting, compliance promotion, inspections);

– applying the compliance promotion approach by enhancing and implementing new competences of enforcement institutions;



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– changing the quantitative proportion between administrative and executive staff in environment enforcement, to strengthen enforcement capacities without essential enlargement of the state administration;

– changing the structure of enforcement organizations, to enable a more integrated approach in enforcement and to improve cooperation among different enforcement bodies;

– specifying clearly monitoring obligations (with respect to the duties of the state administration and the polluters) and setting efficient systems of reporting and data documentation;

– creating interdisciplinary (cross-sectoral) links between the enforcement bodies to avoid duplication of activities and to use existing expertise and experience more efficiently;

– strengthening considerably the system of training and education of enforcement officers;

– building new international links, especially with the neighboring countries to enhance effectiveness of environmental enforcement in transboundary issues;

– cooperating more closely with polluters, responsible owners of polluting facilities to increase the awareness of enforcement institutions on the internal problems of installations, which will support the voluntary approach in compliance;

– enhancing involvement of the general public in the enforcement process and raising public awareness on environmental problems (including education aimed at the iright-to-knowi in environmental matters).

4.3 Clarification of competences

Based on experience gained from daily practice, unclear and/or inappropriate setting of competence is one of the main obstacles to achieve effective cooperation necessary for efficient enforcement. To improve the current situation in the Czech Republic, it is necessary to:

– establish the regional level of the state administration with clearly defined responsibilities;

– clarify the relationship between the Czech Environmental Inspectorate and District Offices in environmental matters;

– review, assess and redistribute responsibilities and competences of state officials in enforcement authorities.


Evaluating more than eight years of experience in environmental protection under the conditions of continuing democratic changes and economic transition, it is obvious that actions taken in the Czech Republic were correct in principal. But the first steps of setting democratic state administration in environmental protection, and a foundation of new systems of environmental legislation are not enough without the strong and effective enforcement. Just after the revolution changes, the generally declared demand for ibetter and healthy environmenti



Правові аспекти співпраці України і ЄС у сфері охорони довкілля                       253

followed by expressions of a iwillingness to do something for thati was leading to some kind of underestimation of what it would require to achieve. Under the economic pressures which resulted from the complex and difficult reconstruction and privatization of the economy and which were followed by changing priorities of socially accepted values, failures and gaps in enforcement became visible. The EU accession process is now a great stimulus to strengthen the environmental enforcement starting from the phase of drafting legislation. This situation seems to be also a unique challenge for changing the traditional

icommand and controli approach to more a proactive one, opening the opportunity for promoting environmental compliance and for active involvement of the general public.


Mezricky, V.: Environmental Inspection in Transition in the Czech Republic.

Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Environmental Enforcement, 25 — 28 April 1994, Oaxaca, Mexico, pp 79-82





WWW.EUROPARL.EU.INT/HOME/DEFAULT_EN.HTM — веб- Євро­пейського Парламенту.

UE.EU.INT/EN/SUMM.HTM — веб- Ради Європейського Союзу.

EUROPA.EU.INT/COMM/INDEX_EN.HTM — веб- Європейської Комісії.

CURIA.EU.INT/EN/INDEX.HTM — веб- Суду Європейських Співто­вариств.

WWW.EURO-OMBUDSMAN.EU.INT/HOME/EN/DEFAULT.HTM — веб- Європейського Омбудсмена.

WWW.EIB.EU.INT/ — веб- Європейського інвестиційного банку.

EUROPA.EU.INT/EUR-LEX/EN/INDEX.HTML — портал права Європейського Союзу (офіційний вісник, установчі договори, законодавство, проекти законодавства, судові справи та ін.).

EUROPA.EU.INT/SCADPLUS/LEG/EN/S15000.HTM — резюме законодавства ЄС в сфері навколишнього середовища (загальні положення, сталий розвиток, управління відходами, забруднення шумом, забруднення повітря, зміна клімату, охорона та управління водними ресурсами, охорона природи та біорізноманіття, охорона ґрунтів, хімічні продукти, цивільний захист, навколишнє середовище: співпраця з третіми країнами).

EUROPA.EU.INT/EUR-LEX/EN/SEARCH/SEARCH_CASE.HTML — пошук справ Суду Європейських Співтовариств та Суду першої інстанції за реквізитами.


— Важливі справи Суду Європейських Співтовариств в сфері навколишнього середовища.

WWW.EEA.EU.INT/ — Європейське агентство з навколишнього середо­вища.

WWW.EI.JRC.IT/ — Інститут з навколишнього середовища та сталого роз­витку.

EUROPA.EU.INT/ABC/DOC/OFF/BULL/EN/WELCOME.HTM — бюлетень Європейського Союзу.

EUROPA.EU.INT/POL/ENV/INDEX_EN.HTM — діяльність Європейського Союзу в сфері навколишнього середовища.

EUROPA.EU.INT/ABC/DOC/OFF/RG/EN/WELCOME.HTM — загальний звіт про діяльність Європейського Союзу.

EUROPA.EU.INT/COMM/ENVIRONMENT/AIR_EN.HTM — регулювання атмос­ферного забруднення та якість повітря в ЄС.


— правове регулювання біотехнологій в ЄС.

EUROPA.EU.INT/COMM/ENVIRONMENT/CLIMAT/HOME_EN.HTM — правове регулювання зміни клімату в ЄС.




EUROPA.EU.INT/COMM/ENVIRONMENT/ENVECO/INDEX.HTM — використання економіки в регулюванні екологічної політики ЄС.

EUROPA.EU.INT/COMM/ENVIRONMENT/ENLARG/INDEX_EN.HTM — питання розширення ЄС в контексті охорони довкілля.

EUROPA.EU.INT/COMM/ENVIRONMENT/HEALTH/INDEX_EN.HTM — охорона здоров’я в екологічній політиці ЄС.

EUROPA.EU.INT/COMM/ENVIRONMENT/INDUSTRY/INDEX_EN.HTM — промисловість та технології в контексті права навколишнього середовища ЄС.

EUROPA.EU.INT/COMM/ENVIRONMENT/INDUSTRY/INDEX_EN.HTM — міжнародні питання європейського права навколишнього середовища.

EUROPA.EU.INT/COMM/ENVIRONMENT/LAND_USE/INDEX_EN.HTM — правове регулювання використання землі в ЄС.

EUROPA.EU.INT/COMM/ENVIRONMENT/NATURE_BIODIVERSITY/INDEX_ EN.HTM — правове регулювання питань природи та біорізноманіття в ЄС.

EUROPA.EU.INT/COMM/ENVIRONMENT/NOISE/HOME.HTM — правове регулювання шуму в праві навколишнього середовища ЄС.



EUROPA.EU.INT/COMM/ENVIRONMENT/WASTE/INDEX.HTM — правове ре­гулювання поводження з відходами в ЄС.

EUROPA.EU.INT/COMM/ENVIRONMENT/WATER/INDEX.HTML — правове регулювання управління водними ресурсами в ЄС.

EUROPA.EU.INT/COMM/ENVIRONMENT/PUBS/STUDIES.HTM — перелік досліджень і звітів з питань охорони навколишнього середовища.

EUROPA.EU.INT/COMM/ENVIRONMENT/STATISTICS_EN.HTM — статистичні дані з питань, що стосуються охорони довкілля.

EUROPA.EU.INT/COMM/DGS/ENVIRONMENT/INDEX_EN.HTM — веб-сторін-ка Генерального директорату з навколишнього середовища.

WWW.EPE.BE/ — Європейські партнери для навколишнього середовища.

EUROPA.EU.INT/COMM/ENVIRONMENT/IMPEL/ — мережа Європейського Союзу з імплементації та застосування права навколишнього середовища.

WWW.FD.UNL.PT/JE/SG_ENV.HTM — ресурси з права навколишнього сере­довища ЄС.

EUROPA.EU.INT/COMM/ENVIRONMENT/LIFE/HOME.HTM — програма LIFE (природа, навколишнє середовище та треті країни).

WASTE.EIONET.EU.INT — Портал Європейського тематичного центру з потоків відходів та матеріалів Європейського агентства з навколишнього середовища.

WWW.EIONET.EU.INT/ — European Environment Information and Observation Network (EIONET) Networking improving Europe’s environment.

WWW.DELUKR.CEC.EU.INT — офіційний веб-сайт представництва Євро­пейської Комісії в Україні, Білорусі і Молдові.




Навчальний посібник

Микієвич М.М., Андрусевич Н.І., Будякова Т.О.

Європейське право навколишнього середовища. Навчальний посібник. Львів, 2004. — 256 с. ISBN 966-631-300-8

Навчальний посібник охоплює питання у сфері європейського права навколишнього середовища. У загальній частині розглядаються поняття, історія виникнення, предмет, принципи, джерела та інституційний механізм європейського права навколишнього середовища. Особлива частина присвячена деяким актуальним питанням правового регулювання охорони довкілля на рівні Європейського Союзу: зміні клімату, біорізноманіттю, поводженню з відходами. Посібник включає витяги з нормативно-правових актів Європейського Союзу, рішень Суду Європейських Співтовариств, звіти органів Європейського Союзу та ін. (переважно англійською мовою).

Для студентів, аспірантів, викладачів та спеціалістів у галузі європейського, міжнародного та екологічного права.

Розповсюджується безкоштовно.

ББК Х9(4УКР)407.11.я73

Здано до набору 07.05.2004. Підписано до друку 18.05.2004. Формат 60×90/16. Папір офсетний. Гарнітура “Баскервіль”. Ум. друк. арк. 16,00. Обл. вид. арк. 14,71. Тираж 700 прим.

Друк ТзОВ “ЮМІ”, м. Львів, вул. Левицького, 63.

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kievych M., Andrusevych N., Budyakova T. ROPEAN UNION ENVIRONMENTAL LAW

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